This text is a bit long, but it is essential to correctly understand the maps.

The maps in this section provide a detailed picture of the distribution of Ukrainians in 42 Metropolitan Areas (MA), with 4,500 or more Ukrainians in 2020, as well as in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. MA maps show the distribution using PUMAs, while State maps use counties.

The Bureau of the Census (BUCEN) has defined areas called PUMAs with approximately 100,000 persons. There is no one-to-one correspondence between PUMAs and counties. In general, in areas of high population density (MAs), one county may contain more than one PUMA, while in areas of low density one PUMA can contain more than one county.

MA maps:

There are four maps for each MA: a) a map with borders of PUMAs, to help locate them on the MA map; b) the number of Ukrainians in each PUMA; c) three indicators in each PUMA; d) (2013 – 2020) percent difference of Ukrainians in each PUMA. For example, the map Albany_3 numbers, shows the counties (red lines) and PUMAs (black lines) of Albany. In each PUMA, we have three indicators: number of Ukrainians (black), % 4th wave immigrants in the PUMA (blue), and % persons in the PUMA who speak Ukrainian (red).

Some MAs are split into two or more maps. In these cases, an additional map of the whole MA shows the split areas. Riverside_percent A is a map of part A of an MA divided into A and B areas. In this map, area B is marked in gray and the data for area B is shown in Riverside_percent B.

State maps:

PUMAs cover the whole US while, as the American Community Survey (ACS) is a 1% sample, many counties are not captured in the sample. This means no data is available for many counties. State maps present indicators by county and we estimate data for counties using PUMAs. We illustrate this with ALcounty_ukrnum which shows the number of Ukrainians in all counties in Alabama. Some counties, like Jefferson, have one number. This means that the county was equivalent to a PUMA and there were 481 Ukrainians living in the county in 2022.

In many cases, we have several counties with the same number, like Pickens and Tuscaloosa, with 127 in each county. This means that the two counties comprise one PUMA and the number 127 is for the PUMA, not for each county. In other words, there were 127 Ukrainians in the two counties combined, not in each county.